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The disastrous political consequences of the struggle between the pope and the emperor also led to a cultural catastrophe. Germany has lost intellectual leadership in Western Europe. By 1050, German monasteries were major centres of learning and art, and German schools of theology and canon law were unmatched and probably unmatched throughout Europe. The long civil war over the inauguration shook the energy of both German churchmen and intellectuals. They have lagged behind the progress of philosophy, law, literature and art that have taken place in France and Italy. In many ways, Germany never caught up in the Middle Ages. [36] Universities were established in the early 13th century in France, Italy, Spain and England. Note the University of Bologna, 1088, the University of Salamanca, 1134, the University of Paris, 1150, the University of Oxford, 1167 and the University of Cambridge, 1207. The first German university, the University of Heidelberg, was not founded until 1386. It was immediately imbued with medieval nominalism and early Protestantism. The concord of Worms (Latin: Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the town of Worm.

It ended the first phase of the power struggle between the papacy and the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and was interpreted to mean the seed of national sovereignty, which would one day be confirmed in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). This was partly an unforeseen result of strategic manoeuvres between the Church and European sovereigns on political control within their domains. The king was enshrined in the right to invest bishops of worldly authority („by the Lance“) in the territories they governed, but not with sacred authority („by the ring and the staff“); The result was that the bishops owed both the pope and the king loyalty in worldly affairs, because they were obliged to affirm the sovereign`s right to invite them, under his oath of allegiance, to military support. The former emperors of the Roman Empire had considered that they had the right to appoint Church officials in their territories (such as bishops) and to confirm the election of the pope (and to effectively appoint them popes in times of extraordinary emergency). Indeed, the emperors had relied heavily on the bishops for their secular administration, for they were not a hereditary or quasi hereditary nobility with family interests, which further jeopardized the struggle. A more immediate result of the inauguration struggle has identified a property right that has retained sovereign territory and which recognizes the right of kings to income from the territory of a vacant diocese and a basis for reasonable taxation.